Papers on Famous Confused Philosophers


The Cartesian Circle Persists
A paper for a graduate seminar on Descartes, about the 'Cartesian circle.' Explains why attempts to save Descartes from the charge of circularity fail.

On Objective Being in the Intellect
Another seminar paper on Descartes. This is about what Descartes means by something's 'existing objectively in the intellect' (as when he says the idea of the sun is "the sun itself existing in the intellect"). Could he mean it literally?

Aristotle and Incontinence
A lowly undergraduate paper, but still good. Why Aristotle fails to solve the problem of weakness of the will.

An Examination of Aristotle's Ethics
A somewhat unsympathetic exposition of the Nicomachean Ethics.

Problems from Kant
An even less sympathetic overview of Kant's project in the Critique of Pure Reason.

A Critique of the Kantian Ethics
The least sympathetic of all, exposition of the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals.

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